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    • Joint Disorders
    • Shoulder
    • Sports Medicine

    AC Joint Inflammation

    The AC (acromioclavicular) joint is formed where a portion of the scapula and clavicle meet and are held together by ligaments that act like tethers to keep the bones in place. Inflammation of the AC joint is a frequent cause of pain in the top portion of the shoulder.

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    • Arthritis
    • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
    • Joint Disorders
    • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)
    • Shoulder
    • Sports Medicine

    AC Joint Issues

    Although many things can happen to the AC joint, the most common conditions are fractures, arthritis and separations. When the AC joint is separated, it means that the ligaments are torn and can no longer keep the clavicle and acromion properly aligned. Arthritis in the joint is characterized by a loss of the cartilage that allows bones to move smoothly and is essentially due to wear and tear.

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    • Foot & Ankle
    • Sports Medicine

    Achilles Tendinitis

    Inflammation of a tendon is called tendinitis. Achilles tendinitis is a common condition that causes pain along the back of the leg, near the heel. Although the Achilles tendon can withstand great stresses from running and jumping, it is also prone to tendinitis.

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    • Foot & Ankle
    • Sports Medicine

    Achilles Tendon Rupture

    An Achilles tendon rupture is a complete or partial tear that occurs when the Achilles tendon is stretched beyond its capacity. Forceful jumping or pivoting, or sudden accelerations of running, can overstretch the tendon and cause a tear. An injury to the tendon can also result from falling or tripping.

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    • Joint Disorders
    • Knee
    • Ligament Disorders
    • Sports Medicine

    ACL Injuries & Reconstruction

    One of the most common knee injuries is an ACL sprain or tear. Athletes who participate in high demand sports like soccer, football and basketball are more likely to injure their anterior cruciate ligaments. About half of all ACL injuries occur along with damage to other structures in the knee, such as articular cartilage, meniscus, or other knee ligaments.

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    • Arthritis
    • Foot & Ankle
    • Joint Disorders

    Ankle Arthritis

    Arthritis is inflammation that can cause pain and stiffness in any joint in the body. Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative or “wear-and-tear” arthritis, is a common problem for many people after reaching middle age. It is often experienced in the small joints of the foot and ankle.

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    • Foot & Ankle
    • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
    • Sports Medicine

    Ankle Sprain

    When a ligament is forced to stretch beyond its normal range, a sprain occurs. A severe sprain causes actual tearing of the elastic fibers of the ligament. A sprained ankle is a very common injury that produces pain and swelling.

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    • Hip
    • Joint Disorders
    • Joint Replacement & Revision

    Anterior or Posterior Hip Replacement

    Both the anterior and posterior approaches provide excellent relief of arthritic hip pain and stiffness, as well as providing durable service for up to 15-20 years. At Shoreline Orthopaedics, we know that one approach is not right for everyone. We are equally skilled and experienced in both anterior and posterior approaches to total hip replacement.

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    • Arthritis
    • Joint Disorders
    • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

    Arthritis Overview

    According to estimates, one in every five people living in the United States has signs or symptoms of arthritis in at least one joint. There are many types of arthritis, but most fall into one of two major categories: osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, or RA. Arthritis is the leading cause of disability in the United States and it affects millions of people. Approximately half of all sufferers are under age 50.

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    • Minimally Invasive Surgery (Arthroscopy)

      Arthroscopy (Minimally Invasive Surgery)

      Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used by orthopaedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose, and treat problems inside the joint. Because it requires only tiny incisions, arthroscopy can be performed without a major, invasive operation and many procedures can be done on an outpatient basis.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee

      Articular Cartilage Restoration

      Articular cartilage can be damaged by injury or normal wear and tear, resulting in a joint surface that is no longer smooth. Damaged cartilage does not heal itself well, so doctors have developed surgical techniques to stimulate the growth of new cartilage. This procedure is used most commonly for the knee and most candidates are young adults with a single injury or lesion. Restoring articular cartilage can relieve pain, allow improved function, and delay or prevent the onset of arthritis.

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Pediatric Injuries

      Backpack Safety

      Backpacks that are too heavy or are worn incorrectly can cause a variety of problems for people of any age, especially children and teenagers. An improperly used backpack can injure muscles and joints, leading to severe back, neck and shoulder pain, as well as posture problems. However, backpacks do not cause scoliosis.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Shoulder
      • Sports Medicine

      Biceps Tendinitis

      Inflammation of a tendon is called tendinitis. An inflammation or irritation of the upper biceps tendon is called long head of biceps tendinitis. Inflammation is the body’s natural response to injury, disease, overuse or degeneration, and it often causes swelling, pain or irritation.

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      • Elbow
      • Joint Disorders
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Biceps Tendon Tear at the Elbow

      Most often caused by sudden injury, a biceps tendon tear at the elbow tends to result in greater arm weakness than injuries to the biceps tendon at the shoulder. Without use of the biceps tendon, other arm muscles will make bending the elbow possible, however, these muscles cannot fulfill all elbow functions.

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      • Bone Health & Osteoporosis
      • Foot & Ankle
      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Hand & Wrist
      • Hip
      • Knee
      • Neck and Back (Spine)

      Bone Health & Osteoporosis

      One in two women and up to one in four men will break a bone in their lifetime due to osteoporosis. For women, the incidence is greater than that of heart attack, stroke and breast cancer combined. Shoreline Orthopaedics has opened the Bone Health and Osteoporosis Clinic to help patients prevent fractures and breaking of that second bone.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Pediatric Injuries

      Bone, Joint & Muscle Infections in Children

      Children can develop “deep” infections in their bones (osteomyelitis), joints (septic arthritis), or muscles (pyomyositis). The most common locations for deep muscle infections are the large muscle groups of the thigh, groin and pelvis. Children who have infections of their bones, joints, or muscles often have fever, pain, and limited movement of the infected area.

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      • Foot & Ankle
      • Joint Disorders

      Bunions

      A bunion is a bump on the MTP joint, on the inner border of the foot. Bunions are made of bone and soft tissue, covered by skin that may be red and tender. Prolonged wearing of poorly fitting shoes is by far the most common cause of bunions, especially styles that feature a narrow, pointed toe box that squeezes the toes into an unnatural position. Bunions also have a strong genetic component.

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      • Hand & Wrist
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

      Many things can lead to development of carpal tunnel syndrome, and in most cases, there is no single cause. Common symptoms are: numbness, tingling and pain in the hand; a sensation similar to an electric shock, felt mostly in the thumb, index and long fingers; and strange sensations and pain traveling up the arm toward the shoulder.

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      • Foot & Ankle

      Cavovarus Foot Deformity

      The term “cavovarus” refers to a foot with an arch that is higher than normal, and that turns in at the heel. Weakness in the peroneal muscles and sometimes the small muscles in the foot are often the cause of a cavovarus foot deformity. As the deformity worsens, there can be increasing pain at the ankle due to recurrent sprains, painful calluses at the side of the foot or base of the toes, or difficulty with shoe wear.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Sports Medicine

      Cervical Fracture (Broken Neck)

      A cervical fracture (broken neck) is a fracture or break that occurs in one of the seven cervical vertebrae. Following an acute neck injury, patients may experience shock and/or paralysis, as well as bruising or swelling at the back of the neck. Conscious patients may experience severe neck pain, but this is not necessarily the case.

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Cervical Radiculopathy (Pinched Nerve)

      When there is inflammation, compression (pressure), or irritation of a nerve root exiting the spine, the nerve may be unable to conduct sensory impulses to the brain appropriately, leading to varying degrees of discomfort and pain. The majority of patients with cervical radiculopathy, or a pinched nerve, get better over time, with no need for surgery or any type of treatment at all.

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      • Arthritis
      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Cervical Spondylosis (Neck Arthritis)

      Cervical spondylosis, or neck arthritis, is the degeneration of the joints in the neck. Like the rest of the body, the bones in the cervical spine, or neck, slowly degenerate as we age, frequently resulting in cervical spondylosis, or arthritis of the neck. Pain ranges from mild to severe and is sometimes worsened by looking up or down for long periods of time, as with driving a car or reading a book.

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (Spinal Cord Compression)

      Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), or spinal cord compression, is one of the most common age-related neck conditions in the U.S. Over time, normal wear-and-tear and effects of aging can lead to a narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis), compressing, or squeezing, the spinal cord. CSM can cause a variety of symptoms, including: a tingling, prickling sensation, numbness, weakness, difficulty walking (loss of balance), wide-based gait, coordination problems, clumsiness, difficulty with simple tasks, neck pain and stiffness.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Shoulder

      Chronic Shoulder Instability

      Chronic shoulder instability is the persistent inability of these tissues to keep the arm centered in the shoulder socket, so the shoulder is loose and slips out of place repeatedly. Once a shoulder has dislocated, or the shoulder’s ligaments, tendons and muscles become loose or torn, that shoulder is vulnerable to repeated dislocations.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Knee
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Collateral Ligament Injuries (MCL, LCL)

      Knee ligament sprains or tears are a common sports injury, and the MCL is injured more often than the LCL. The MCL is the most commonly injured ligament in the knee. However, due to the complex anatomy of the outside of the knee, an injury to the LCL usually includes injury to other structures in the joint, as well. Athletes who participate in direct contact sports like football or soccer are more likely to injure their collateral ligaments.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Knee
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Combined Knee Ligament Injuries

      Because the knee joint relies just on ligaments and surrounding muscles for stability, it is easily injured. Direct contact to the knee or hard muscle contraction, such as changing direction rapidly while running, can injure a knee ligament. It is possible to injure two or more ligaments at the same time. Multiple injuries can have serious complications, such as disrupting blood supply to the leg or affecting nerves that supply the limb’s muscles.

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      • Muscle Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Contusions or Bruises

      Muscle contusions, or bruises, are second only to strains as a leading cause of sports injuries. Most contusions are minor and heal quickly, without requiring the athlete to be removed from the game. However, severe contusions can cause deep tissue damage, which may lead to complications and/or keep the athlete out of sports for months.

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      • Muscle Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Cramps or Charley Horse

      A charley horse, or cramp, is an involuntary, forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax, resulting in sudden and intense pain. Cramps can affect any muscle under your voluntary control (skeletal muscle), and can involve part or all of a muscle, or several muscles in a group. The most commonly affected muscle groups are: back of the lower leg/calf (gastrocnemius), back of the thigh (hamstrings), and front of the thigh (quadriceps).

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      • Diagnostics & Durable Medical Equipment (DME)
      • Sports Medicine

      DARI 3D Motion Capture Scan

      DARI Motion gives us deeper insight into your motion health by allowing us to see and measure your ability to move from different perspectives within minutes. By identifying specific areas that need more attention, DARI helps us provide a more personalized, targeted plan of care.

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      • Hand & Wrist

      De Quervain’s Tendinitis

      De Quervain’s tendinitis occurs when the tendons around the base of the thumb become irritated or swollen, causing the synovium around the tendon to swell and changing the shape of the compartment, which makes it difficult for the tendons to move properly.

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      • Diagnostics & Durable Medical Equipment (DME)

      Digital X-Ray, On Site

      Computed radiography, or digital X-ray, is an advanced technology that streamlines the X-ray process and enables Shoreline Orthopaedics to provide each patient with superior, prompt treatment based on the most accurate, efficient diagnosis.

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      • Hand & Wrist

      Dupuytren’s Contracture

      Dupuytren’s contracture is a thickening of the fibrous tissue layer underneath the skin of the palm and fingers. It is a painless condition and not dangerous, however, the thickening and tightening (contracture) of this fibrous tissue can cause the fingers to curl (flex).

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      • Diagnostics & Durable Medical Equipment (DME)

      Durable Medical Equipment (DME)

      Shoreline Orthopaedics offers Durable Medical Equipment (DME) designed to address a wide variety of orthopaedic conditions and musculoskeletal issues. Our experts will provide the necessary instructions for use and help with fitting for the best possible outcome.

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      • Elbow
      • Joint Disorders

      Elbow (Olecranon) Bursitis

      Normally, the olecranon bursa is flat. However, if it becomes irritated or inflamed, more fluid accumulates in the bursa causing elbow bursitis to develop. Elbow bursitis can occur for a number of reasons, including trauma, prolonged pressure, infections, or certain medical conditions.

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      • Arthritis
      • Elbow
      • Joint Disorders

      Elbow Arthritis

      Elbow arthritis is a common cause of elbow pain and stiffness, but is less common than arthritis in other joints of the body. Arthritis is the loss of the normal protective cartilage that covers the bones. When this cartilage or “padding” of the bone breaks down and is lost, areas of raw bone become exposed. When large areas of bone are exposed, they grind against each other with standing and walking. This is “bone on bone” arthritis and is usually painful.

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      • Elbow
      • Joint Disorders
      • Minimally Invasive Surgery (Arthroscopy)

      Elbow Arthroscopy

      Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used by orthopaedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose and treat problems inside the joint. Your doctor may recommend elbow arthroscopy if you have a painful condition that does not respond to nonsurgical treatments such as rest, physical therapy and medications or injections to reduce inflammation.

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      • Foot & Ankle

      Equinus

      When the ankle joint lacks flexibility and upward, toes-to-shin movement of the foot (dorsiflexion) is limited, the condition is called equinus. Equinus is a result of tightness in the Achilles tendon or calf muscles (the soleus muscle and/or gastrocnemius muscle) and it may be either congenital or acquired. This condition is found equally in men and women, and it can occur in one foot, or both.

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      • Hand & Wrist

      Extensor Tendon Lacerations

      Extensor tendon lacerations (wounds, cuts or tears) of the hand and fingers are quite common injuries, and can occur at many different levels. They are often associated with deep structure damage, such as bone, joint and ligamentous support. Symptoms include one or more of the following: loss of function or strength, diminished range of motion, and weakness when straightening the fingers or hand.

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      • Hip
      • Joint Disorders
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)
      • Sports Medicine

      Femoral Acetabular Impingement (FAI) & Labral Tear of the Hip

      When bones of the hip are abnormally shaped and do not fit together perfectly, the hip bones may rub against each other and cause damage to the joint. The resulting condition is femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), which is frequently seen along with a tear of the labrum.

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      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Fibromyalgia

      Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by widespread pain and tenderness to the touch. Other symptoms commonly associated with fibromyalgia are fatigue, waking unrefreshed, depression, anxiety and memory problems. Numbness and tingling, weakness, urinary frequency, diarrhea and constipation may be present, as well.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Hand & Wrist

      Finger Fracture

      When just one finger bone is fractured, it can cause the entire hand to be out of alignment, making use of your hand difficult and painful. Without proper treatment, that stiffness and pain may become permanent. In addition to pain, common symptoms of a fractured finger may include swelling, tenderness, bruising, or a deformed appearance or inability to move the injured finger.

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      • Hand & Wrist

      Flexor Tendon Injuries

      Anatomy Tendons are tissues that connect muscles to bone. When muscles contract, tendons pull on bones, causing parts of the body to move. Long tendons extend from muscles in the […]

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Sports Medicine

      Fractures

      A fracture is a broken bone. Although bones are rigid, they do bend with limited flexibility when outside force is applied. When that force is too great, the bone will fracture. Common causes of fractures include: trauma, such as auto or sports-related accidents; osteoporosis, which can weaken the bone; or overuse caused by repetitive motion that can tire muscles and place excess force on the bone, resulting in stress fractures like those most often seen in athletes.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Shoulder

      Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis)

      In frozen shoulder, also called adhesive capsulitis, the tissues of the shoulder capsule become thick, stiff and inflamed. Stiff bands of tissue (adhesions) develop and, in many cases, there is a decrease in the synovial fluid needed to lubricate the joint properly. Over time the shoulder becomes extremely difficult to move, even with assistance. Frozen shoulder generally improves over time, however it may take up to 3 years

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      • Hand & Wrist
      • Joint Disorders

      Ganglion Cyst

      A ganglion cyst is a fluid-filled mass or lump. Although they can develop in various locations, the most common location is on the back of the wrist. Ganglion cysts are not cancerous. In most cases, ganglion cysts are harmless and do not require treatment. If, however, the cyst becomes painful, interferes with function, or has an unacceptable appearance, several treatment options are available.

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      • Elbow
      • Joint Disorders
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Golfer’s Elbow (Medial Epicondylitis)

      Medial epicondylitis, often known as golfer’s elbow, is a painful condition that occurs when overuse results in inflammation of the tendons that join the forearm muscles to the inside of the bone at the elbow.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Growth Plate Fractures

      A child’s long bones do not grow from the center outward. Instead, growth occurs in the growth plates—areas of developing cartilage located near the ends of long bones. The growth plate regulates growth and helps determine the length and shape of the mature bone. A child’s bones heal faster than an adult’s so it is extremely important for your child’s injured bone to receive proper treatment immediately, before it can begin to heal.

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      • Foot & Ankle
      • Joint Disorders

      Hallux Rigidus (Stiff Big Toe)

      Hallux rigidus usually develops in adults 30-60 and occurs most commonly at the base of the big toe, or MTP joint. When articular cartilage in the MTP joint is damaged by wear-and-tear or injury, the raw bone ends can rub together and a spur, or overgrowth, may develop on the top of the bone. Because the MTP joint must bend with each step, hallux rigidus can make walking painful and difficult.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Hamstring Injuries

      A hamstring muscle injury can be a pull, a partial tear, or a complete tear. Occurring frequently in athletes, these injuries are especially common for participants in sports that require sprinting, such as track, soccer or basketball. Most hamstring injuries occur in the thick part of the muscle or where the muscle fibers join tendon fibers.

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      • Arthritis
      • Hand & Wrist
      • Joint Disorders

      Hand & Wrist Arthritis

      There are many small joints in the hand and wrist that work together to produce the fine motion necessary to perform detailed tasks such as threading a needle or tying a shoelace. When one or more of these joints is affected by arthritis, even simple activities can become difficult. Although there are many types of arthritis, most fall into one of two major categories: osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, or RA.

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      • Hand & Wrist

      Hand & Wrist Tendinitis

      Tendinitis occurs when a tendon becomes irritated, inflamed or swollen and causes the synovium around the tendon to swell, changing the shape of the tendon sheath compartment and making it difficult for the tendons to move properly. Tendinitis can cause pain and tenderness along the hand or wrist that is particularly noticeable when grasping or gripping, forming a fist, or turning the wrist.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Hand & Wrist

      Hand Fracture

      A fracture of the hand can occur in either the small bones of the fingers (phalanges) or in the long bones (metacarpals). Symptoms of a broken bone in the hand include: pain; swelling; tenderness; an appearance of deformity; inability to move a finger; shortened finger; a finger crossing over its neighbor when you make a fist; or a depressed knuckle, which is often seen in a “boxer’s fracture.”

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Herniated Disk

      A disk herniates when part of the center nucleus pushes through the outer edge of the disk and back toward the spinal canal. This puts pressure on the nerves. Spinal nerves are very sensitive to even slight amounts of pressure, which can result in pain, numbness or weakness in one or both legs. A herniated disc, often referred to as a “slipped” or “ruptured” disk, is a common source of pain in the neck, lower back, arms or legs.

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      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      High School Sports Injuries

      Teenage athletes are injured at approximately the same rate as professional athletes, but because they are often still growing, it is extremely important seek proper treatment immediately. A child’s bones grow at a different rate of speed from that of muscles and tendons. This uneven growth pattern makes younger athletes more susceptible to muscle and tendon injuries, and growth plate fractures.

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      • Arthritis
      • Hip
      • Joint Disorders
      • Joint Replacement & Revision

      Hip Arthritis

      Hip arthritis is a leading cause of hip pain and stiffness. Arthritis is the loss of the normal protective cartilage that covers the bones. When this cartilage or “padding” of the bone breaks down and is lost, areas of raw bone become exposed. When large areas of bone are exposed, they grind against each other with standing and walking. This is “bone on bone” arthritis and is usually painful.

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      • Hip
      • Joint Disorders
      • Minimally Invasive Surgery (Arthroscopy)

      Hip Arthroscopy

      Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used by orthopedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose and treat a wide range of problems inside the joint. During hip arthroscopy, a small camera (arthroscope) is inserted into the hip joint and images from inside the hip are displayed on a video monitor.

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      • Hip
      • Joint Disorders
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Hip Bursitis (Trochanteric Pain Syndrome)

      Hip bursitis is typically the result of inflammation and irritation in one of two major bursae in the hip. One covers the bony point of the hip bone (greater trochanter). Inflammation of this bursa is known as trochanteric bursitis.

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      • Hip
      • Joint Disorders

      Hip Osteonecrosis

      Osteonecrosis of the hip is a painful condition that develops when the blood supply to the femoral head is disrupted. Without adequate nourishment, the bone in the head of the femur dies and gradually collapses. This causes the articular cartilage covering the hip bones to also collapse, leading to disabling arthritis and destruction of the hip joint.

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      • Hip
      • Joint Disorders
      • Joint Replacement & Revision

      Hip Resurfacing

      During hip resurfacing, unlike total hip replacement, the femoral head (ball) is not removed. Instead, it is left in place, where it is trimmed and capped with a smooth metal covering. In both procedures, however, the damaged bone and cartilage within the acetabulum (socket) is removed and replaced with a metal shell.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Jumper’s Knee

      Repetitive contraction of the quadriceps muscles in the thigh can stress the patellar tendon where it attaches to the kneecap, causing inflammation and tissue damage (patellar tendinitis). For a child, this repetitive stress on the tendon can irritate and injure the growth plate, resulting in a condition referred to as Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease.

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      • Arthritis
      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Knee Arthritis

      The knee is one of the most commonly involved joints with arthritis. Arthritis is the loss of the normal protective cartilage that covers the bones. When this cartilage or “padding” of the bone breaks down and is lost, areas of raw bone become exposed and grind against each other with standing and walking. This is “bone on bone” arthritis and is usually painful.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee
      • Minimally Invasive Surgery (Arthroscopy)

      Knee Arthroscopy

      Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used by orthopaedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose and treat problems inside the joint. Your doctor may recommend knee arthroscopy if you have a painful condition that does not respond to nonsurgical treatments such as rest, physical therapy, and medications or injections to reduce inflammation.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee

      Knee Osteonecrosis

      Osteonecrosis, which literally means “bone death,” is a painful condition that develops when a segment of bone loses its blood supply and begins to die. Osteonecrosis of the knee most often occurs in the knobby portion of the thighbone, on the inside of the knee (medial femoral condyle). It may also occur on the outside of the knee (lateral femoral condyle) or on the flat top of the lower leg bone (tibial plateau).

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      • Arthritis
      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee

      Knee Osteotomy

      Osteotomy literally means “cutting of the bone.” When early-stage osteoarthritis has damaged just one side of the knee joint, or when malalignment of the knee causes increased stress to ligaments or cartilage, a knee osteotomy may be performed to reshape either the tibia (shinbone) or femur (thighbone) to relieve pressure on the joint.

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Kyphosis (Roundback) of the Spine

      The term kyphosis is used to describe the spinal curve that results in an abnormally rounded back. Although some degree of rounded curvature of the spine is normal, a kyphotic curve that is more than 50° is considered abnormal. There are several types and causes of kyphosis: postural kyphosis, Scheuermann’s kyphosis, and congenital kyphosis.

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      • Arthritis
      • Elbow
      • Joint Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Loose Body in the Elbow

      Loose bodies are small fragments of bone or cartilage that have broken off inside a joint. As these fragments float free within the elbow, they can cause pain and even get caught in the moving parts of the joint.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Neck and Back (Spine)

      Low Back Pain

      The most common causes of lower back pain are strains and sprains to the muscles, tendons or ligaments of the low back, ranging from simple overstretching injuries to partial or complete tears. the muscles surrounding the injured area typically become inflamed, causing back spasms that result in severe lower back pain and difficulty moving.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Neck and Back (Spine)

      Lumbar Back Strain

      A lumbar strain is an injury to the tendons and/or muscles of the lower back, ranging from simple stretching injuries to partial or complete tears in the muscle/tendon combination. These tears cause inflammation in the surrounding area, resulting in painful back spasms and difficulty moving. An acute lumber strain is one that has been present for days or weeks. If it has persisted for longer than 3 months, it is considered chronic.

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)

      Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

      Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common cause of pain in the lower back and legs. As we grow older, our spines change and over time, normal wear-and-tear and the effects of aging can lead to a narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis). This puts pressure on the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots, and may cause pain, numbness or weakness in the legs.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee
      • Sports Medicine

      Meniscal Tears

      Meniscal tears are among the most common knee injuries. When tearing a meniscus, you may hear a “popping” noise. Most people can still walk on the injured knee, and athletes often continue to play immediately following a tear. However, without proper treatment, a piece of meniscus may come loose and drift into the joint, worsening symptoms.

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      • Foot & Ankle

      Morton’s Neuroma

      Morton’s neuroma is not actually a tumor—it is a thickening of the tissue that surrounds the digital nerve leading to the toes. Morton’s neuroma most frequently develops between the third and fourth toes, and occurs where the nerve passes under the ligament connecting the toe bones (metatarsals) in the forefoot.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Neck Sprains & Strains

      Sprains and strains are injuries to ligaments, muscles or tendons. A sprain is the simple stretch or tear of a ligament. A strain may be a simple stretch of a muscle or tendon, or it may be a partial or complete tear in the muscle/tendon combination.

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      • Foot & Ankle
      • Hand & Wrist
      • Sports Medicine

      Nerve Injuries

      Injury to a nerve can stop signals to and from the brain, resulting in a loss of feeling in the injured area and causing the muscles to stop working properly. Nerves are fragile and can be damaged by pressure, stretching, or cutting.

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      • Knee
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Osgood-Schlatter Disease

      In Osgood-Schlatter disease, children have pain at the front of the knee due to inflammation of the growth plate (tibial tubercle) at the upper end of the shinbone (tibia). When a child participates in sports or other strenuous activities, the quadriceps muscles of the thigh pull on the patellar tendon which, in turn, pulls on the tibial tubercle. In some children, this repetitive traction on the tubercle leads to the inflammation, swelling and tenderness of an overuse injury.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Osteochondritis Dissecans (OCD)

      Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a joint condition that occurs when a small segment of bone separates from its surrounding region due to a lack of blood supply. As a result, the bone segment and cartilage covering it begin to crack and loosen. OCD develops most often in children and adolescents, frequently in the knee, at the end of the femur (thighbone).

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Osteoporosis & Spinal Fractures

      When too much pressure is placed on a vertebra weakened by osteoporosis, the patient may suffer a vertebral compression fracture. Fractures caused by osteoporosis often occur in the spine. Vertebrae weakened by osteoporosis are at high risk for fracture.

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      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Overuse Injuries in Children

      Although the benefits of athletic activity are significant, young athletes are at greater risk for injury than adults because they are still growing. Some children play on multiple team sat the same time while others participate in one sport, all year long. Repetitive use of the same muscle groups places unchanging stress to specific areas of the body, leading to muscle imbalances that, when combined with overtraining and inadequate rest periods, can put children at serious risk for overuse injuries.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Joint Replacement & Revision
      • Knee

      Partial Knee Replacement

      Unicompartmental (or partial) knee replacement is an option for a small percentage of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee that is limited to a single compartment of the knee. During this procedure, only the damaged compartment is replaced with metal and plastic, while the healthy cartilage and bone in the rest of the knee is left alone.

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      • Knee
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Patella Tendinitis & Patella Tendinosis

      Pain in the patella tendon is a common problem, especially in people who participate extensively in running or jumping activities. Pain in the patella tendon can be separated into two main conditions: patella tendinitis and patella tendinosis.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)
      • Sports Medicine

      Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (Runner’s Knee)

      Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a broad term used to describe pain in the front of the knee and around the kneecap. Although it can occur in nonathletes, it is sometimes called “runner’s knee” or “jumper’s knee” because it is most common in people who participate in sports—particularly females and young adults.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Knee
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      PCL Injuries & Reconstruction

      Injuries to the posterior cruciate ligament are not as common as other knee ligament injuries. They are often subtle and more difficult to evaluate than other ligament injuries in the knee. Many times a posterior cruciate ligament injury occurs along with injuries to other structures in the knee, such as cartilage, other ligaments, and bone.

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      • Foot & Ankle
      • Sports Medicine

      Peroneal Tendon Injuries

      Basic types of peroneal tendon injuries are tendinitis, acute and degenerative tears, and subluxation. Peroneal tendon injuries occur most commonly in individuals who participate in sports that involve repetitive or excessive ankle motion. People with higher arches have an increased risk for developing peroneal tendon injuries.

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      • Foot & Ankle
      • Pediatric Injuries

      Pes Plano Valgus (Flexible Flatfoot in Children)

      When a child with flexible flatfoot stands, the arch of the foot disappears. The arch reappears when the child is sitting or standing on tiptoes. Although called “flexible flatfoot,” this condition always affects both feet.

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      • Foot & Ankle
      • Ligament Disorders

      Plantar Fasciitis

      Although the plantar fascia is designed to absorb the high stresses and strains placed on the feet, sometimes too much pressure can damage or tear these tissues. The body’s natural response to such an injury is inflammation, which results in heel pain and stiffness of plantar fasciitis.

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      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      PM&R or Physiatry Overview

      Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), or physiatry, is one of 24 medical specialties certified by the American Board of Medical Specialties. This branch of medicine emphasizes the prevention, diagnosis and nonsurgical treatment of disorders related to nerves, muscles and bones that affect movement.

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      • Foot & Ankle
      • Sports Medicine

      Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

      Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction is one of the most common problems of the foot and ankle. It occurs when the tendon becomes inflamed or torn, which impairs the tendon’s ability to provide stability and support for the arch of the foot, resulting in flatfoot.

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)

      Preventing Back Pain

      Back pain can vary according to the individual and underlying cause. The pain may dull, achy, sharp, stabbing, or it may feel like a cramp, or “charley horse.” The intensity of pain may worsen with certain activities, such as bending, lifting, standing, walking or sitting.

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      • Elbow
      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Joint Disorders

      Radial Head Fractures of the Elbow

      Although attempting to break a fall with outstretched hands may be an instinctive response, the force of the impact can travel up the forearm and result in a dislocated elbow or break in the radius, which often occurs in the radial head.

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      • Minimally Invasive Surgery (Arthroscopy)
      • Shoulder
      • Sports Medicine

      Rotator Cuff Tear & Arthroscopic Repair

      When one or more of the rotator cuff tendons is torn, the tendon no longer fully attaches to the head of the humerus. As damage progresses, lifting a heavy object or other similar action can result in a complete tear of the tendon. A torn rotator cuff weakens the shoulder, making it painful and difficult to perform simple daily activities such as getting dressed or combing your hair.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction (SI Joint Pain)

      Sacroiliac joint dysfunction (SI joint pain) is a painful condition resulting from improper or abnormal movement of the sacroiliac joints. Generally more common in young and middle-aged women, sacroiliac joint dysfunction can cause inflammation of the joints (sacroiliitis), as well as pain that occurs in the lower back, buttocks or legs.

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      • Hip
      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Sciatica

      Most common between 30 and 50 years of age, sciatica is a pain in your lower back or hip that radiates to the back of your thigh and into your leg. Often people think that the source of the pain is the buttock, hip or thigh and seek medical care for a “hip” problem only to learn that the source of the pain is the lower back.

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)

      Scoliosis

      Scoliosis is a common condition of the spine that affects many children and adolescents. Unlike a normal spine that runs straight down the middle of the back, a spine with scoliosis forms a sideways curve that may look like a letter “C” or “S.” Scoliosis can cause the spine to rotate or turn, resulting in a shoulder, shoulder blade (scapula), or hip that appears higher than the other.

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      • Foot & Ankle
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Sever’s Disease

      Sever’s disease (also known as osteochondrosis or apophysitis) is an inflammatory condition of the growth plate in the heel bone (calcaneus). One of most common causes of heel pain in children, Sever’s Disease often occurs during adolescence when children hit a growth spurt.

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      • Arthritis
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)
      • Shoulder

      Shoulder Arthritis

      Over time, the shoulder joint frequently becomes arthritic, with bone spur formation and loss of cartilage between the bones. This can cause pain in the top of the shoulder with overhead movement or reaching across the body. It can also cause tenderness or pain with pressure, such as from a back pack or bra strap.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Minimally Invasive Surgery (Arthroscopy)
      • Shoulder

      Shoulder Arthroscopy

      Shoulder arthroscopy may relieve the painful symptoms of many problems that damage the rotator cuff tendons, labrum, articular cartilage, or other soft tissues surrounding the joint. This damage may be the result of an injury, overuse, or age-related wear and tear.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Shoulder
      • Sports Medicine

      Shoulder Dislocation

      A dislocated shoulder occurs when the head of the upper arm bone (humerous) is either partially or completely out of its socket (glenoid). Whether it is a partial dislocation (subluxation) or the shoulder is completely dislocated, the result can be pain and unsteadiness in the shoulder.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)
      • Shoulder
      • Sports Medicine

      Shoulder Impingement

      Rotator cuff pain commonly causes tenderness in the front and side of the shoulder. There may be pain and stiffness when lifting the arm, or when lowering the arm from an elevated position.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Joint Replacement & Revision
      • Shoulder

      Shoulder Replacement

      In shoulder replacement surgery, the damaged parts of the shoulder are removed and replaced with artificial components, called prosthesis. Options include replacement of only the ball (head of the humerus bone), or replacement of both the ball and the socket (glenoid).

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Joint Disorders
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Shoulder
      • Sports Medicine

      Shoulder Separation (AC Joint Sprain)

      A shoulder separation is actually an injury to the AC joint, not the shoulder joint. It is commonly the result of a direct fall onto the shoulder that injures the ligaments that surround and stabilize the AC joint.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Shoulder
      • Sports Medicine

      SLAP Tear

      A SLAP (Superior Labrum Anterior and Posterior) tear is an injury to the top (or superior) part of the labrum. SLAP tears can be the result of acute trauma, or repetitive overhead sports, such as throwing athletes or weightlifters, have an increased risk of injury to the superior labrum. Many SLAP tears are the result of a wearing down of the labrum that occurs slowly over time.

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      • Neck and Back (Spine)
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation (PM&R)
      • Sports Medicine

      Spondylolysis & Spondylolisthesis

      Many people with spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis do not experience obvious symptoms or pain. Often, a patient visits the doctor for activity-related lower back pain, only to be surprised by the diagnosis. Patients may experience what feels like a muscle strain, with pain that spreads across lower back, and is sometimes accompanied by leg pain. Spondylolisthesis can also cause spasms that stiffen the back and tighten hamstring muscles, resulting in changes to posture and gain.

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      • Sports Medicine

      Sports Medicine Overview

      Sports medicine is a specialty within orthopaedics that treats injuries to bones, joints, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and muscles. Many of these injuries are sustained during athletic activity, but not all people who experience these injuries are competitive athletes. Therefore, we will develop a treatment plan that makes most sense for each individual.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Sprains & Strains

      A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments that connect one bone to another, often caused by a fall or sudden twisting of a joint. A strain can be a simple stretch in a muscle or tendon (the fibrous cords of tissue that attach muscles to bone), or it can be a partial or complete tear in the muscle-tendon combination.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Sports Medicine

      Stress Fracture

      Stress fractures are common sports injuries that occur due to overuse. As muscles become increasingly fatigued and less able to absorb the added shock of a sports activity, the overload of stress is eventually transferred to the bone, resulting in a tiny crack called a stress fracture.

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      • Elbow
      • Joint Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

      Lateral epicondylitis, more commonly known as tennis elbow, is a painful condition that occurs when overuse results in inflammation of the tendons that join the forearm muscles on the outside of the elbow. Recent studies show that tennis elbow is often due to damage to the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), a specific forearm muscle that helps stabilize the wrist when the elbow is straight.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Muscle Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Thigh Muscle Strain

      Muscle strains usually happen when a muscle is stretched beyond its limit, tearing the muscle fibers. They frequently occur near the point where the muscle joins the tough, fibrous connective tissue of the tendon. A similar injury occurs if there is a direct blow to the muscle. Muscle strains are graded according to their severity.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Neck and Back (Spine)

      Thoracic & Lumbar Spine Fracture

      The most common spinal fractures occur in the thoracic (midback) and lumbar (lower back) spine, or where the two connect (thoracolumbar junction). There are several types of thoracic and lumbar spine fractures, and classification is based upon pattern of injury and whether or not the spinal cord has also been injured. Identifying the type of fracture can help your physician determine the most appropriate treatment.

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      • Elbow
      • Pediatric Injuries
      • Sports Medicine

      Throwing Injuries to the Elbow in Children

      The beginning of baseball season in spring is often followed by an increase in overuse injuries in young baseball players, particularly pitchers and other players who throw repetitively. Two of the most frequent throwing injuries to the elbow are medial apophysitis (little leaguer’s elbow), and osteochondritis dissecans.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Hand & Wrist
      • Sports Medicine

      Thumb Fracture

      Although a fracture can occur anywhere in the thumb, the most serious happen near the joints, especially at the base of the thumb near the wrist. A fractured or broken thumb can be especially difficult because it affects the ability to grasp items. Thumb fractures are usually a result of direct stress, such as from a fall or catching a baseball without a glove.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Hand & Wrist
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Thumb Sprain

      A sprained thumb, or gamekeepers thumb, is an injury to the ulnar collateral ligament. A tear in the ulnar collateral ligament at the base of the thumb will cause instability and discomfort, weakening your ability to pinch and grasp.

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      • Hip
      • Joint Disorders
      • Joint Replacement & Revision

      Total Hip Replacement (Hip Arthroplasty)

      In a total hip replacement, or total hip arthroplasty, the damaged bone and cartilage is removed and replaced with prosthetic components. Many different types of designs and materials are currently used in artificial hip joints. Your surgeon will recommend the most appropriate implants and surgical approach for your needs.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Joint Replacement & Revision
      • Knee

      Total Knee Replacement (Knee Arthroplasty)

      People who benefit from total knee replacement surgery often experience one or more of the following: severe knee pain or stiffness that limits everyday activities; difficulty walking more than a few blocks without pain or support; moderate or severe pain while resting, day or night; chronic knee inflammation and swelling that does not improve with rest or medication; knee deformity; failure to substantially improve with treatments.

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      • Diagnostics & Durable Medical Equipment (DME)

      Traditional X-RAY, CT Scan, MRI

      Diagnostic imaging techniques are often used to provide a clear view of bones, organs, muscles, tendons, nerves and cartilage inside the body, enabling physicians to make an accurate diagnosis and determine the best options for treatment. The most common of these include: traditional and digital X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

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      • Hand & Wrist

      Trigger Finger

      With trigger finger, when you try to straighten your finger, the tendon becomes momentarily stuck at the mouth of the tendon sheath tunnel. As the tendon slips through the tight area, you might feel a pop as your finger suddenly shoots straight out. Symptoms may include: a tender lump in your palm, swelling, a catching or popping sensation in finger or thumb joints, and pain when bending or straightening a finger.

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      • Elbow
      • Joint Disorders

      Ulnar Nerve Entrapment at the Elbow (Cubital Tunnel Syndrome)

      Ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow, or cubital tunnel syndrome, occurs when the ulnar nerve in the arm becomes compressed or irritated. Although there are various areas where the ulnar nerve can become constricted, such as at the collarbone or wrist, it occurs most commonly behind the inside of the elbow.

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      • Joint Disorders
      • Knee

      Unstable Kneecap (Patella Instability) Procedures

      In a normal knee, the kneecap fits nicely in the femoral groove, allowing you to walk, run, sit, stand, and move easily. But if the groove is uneven or too shallow, the kneecap can slide off, resulting in a partial or complete dislocation. A sharp blow to the kneecap, as in a fall, can also pop the kneecap out of place. When this happens, the MPFL is usually torn and this makes it more likely for it to happen again.

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      • Hand & Wrist
      • Joint Disorders
      • Minimally Invasive Surgery (Arthroscopy)

      Wrist Arthroscopy

      Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used by orthopaedic surgeons to visualize, diagnose and treat problems inside the joint. Your doctor may recommend wrist arthroscopy if you have a painful condition that does not respond to nonsurgical treatments.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Hand & Wrist
      • Joint Disorders
      • Ligament Disorders
      • Sports Medicine

      Wrist Sprains

      Sprained wrists are often caused by a fall, such as onto an outstretched hand, or when the joint is bent forcefully or suddenly twisted. Wrist sprains are graded according to the degree of injury to the ligaments, and they can range from mild to severe.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Hand & Wrist

      Wrist, Distal Radius Fracture

      A broken wrist, or distal radius fracture, is a common fracture that can occur even in healthy bone if the force of trauma is severe enough. This break often happens as a person lands on an outstretched hand when trying to break a fall. Automobile, biking, skiing and other similar accidents are also frequently causes.

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      • Fractures, Sprains & Strains
      • Hand & Wrist

      Wrist, Scaphoid Fracture

      Fractures of the scaphoid occur in people of all ages. This fracture often happens as a person tries to break a fall and lands on an outstretched hand with the palm bearing most of the weight. Automobile accidents and sports injuries are also frequent causes.

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